Resistant tough-foot Besides the Caracu and the Lageano, another four Brazilian cattle breeds are being studied by Embrapa and by other research institutions in the country. Perhaps that is why it is called tough-foot. Furthermore, in the conditions of semi-arid, the female Curraleiros produce a calf a year, and in some cases, continue to produce calves even after reaching 20 years in age. It is the breed that is best adapted to the Northeastern Caatinga Semi-arid scrubland , although it originated from European breed.
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If we conclude that they are very similar, we may sound out the possibility of bringing new blood, or even of taking it there. This claim will be tested in tasting panels to be held by Embrapa. One of the most threatened breeds of cattle is the Pantaneiro, in its physical aspect very similar to the Curraleiro. The introduction of Zebus genes from the 20th century onwards, particularly of Nelore in the region of the Pantanal, and its good adaptability resulted in crossbreeding or lack of interest in breeding, leading to the near-loss of the rusticated pantaneiro, cattle that lives well in swampy areas and has a birthrate that is unbeatable in the region.
By means of an analysis of allele frequency, which shows the groups of genes that are repeated over generations, the program to conserve the breed, existing since the s, detected that the present-day descendents of the Pantaneiro have higher genetic diversity values than the adults with less interference from Zebu genes.
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For this kind of genetic differentiation between breeds, the use of a tool for animal conservation that is being much used is important. This is genetic characterization molecular markers of the microsatellite kind that uses the DNA taken from the blood, semen, or even from the hairs of the animals.
The results obtained have served to orientate the choice of donors of semen and eggs, and even to eliminate genetic material from animals that had been included in the Germoplasm Bank, in Brasilia, where the genetic material is kept, for their phenotype, but in which genetic characterization has pointed to the introduction of other breeds. Another technique that is beginning to be used is the cloning of animals. The breed today has about a hundred individuals.
The project was run by the animal reproduction team, coordinated by researcher Rodolfo Rumpf, from Embrapa, and had the participation of postgraduate students from UnB.
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The idea is for these clones, in future, to receive semen from different bulls of the Junqueiro breed, for the offspring to show genetic differences. We regard this bank as a legacy for the future generations.
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