Sadly, her years as a widow were grim. Image Credit: The Windsor Years. Check out our selection of books on the Duke and Duchess of Windsor here. The Duke of Windsor and Queen Mary, Today, few people insist on excellence or even seem to have time for dining. They eat instead. These Entertaining People. To mention Florence Pritchett Smith and conspiracy in the same sentence risks being led astray on on a tangent see this related post.
The fifties were an ignoble era for American cuisine. As income rose, food quality sank. These Entertaining People promoted the opposite, with advice from the author's friends. As to be expected, Pritchett Smith herself was an accomplished hostess. Her husband was the final U. She presided over social events at the United States embassy in Havana up until the time when it would have been necessary to plan a welcome party for Fidel Castro and the other Communists rebels, which one imagines Pritchett Smith would have done with aplomb should the State Department have so required.
Let them travel the road from bland to spicy, from sweet to tart, from rich to simple. Surround your main dish with complementary colors. Pick a new color for dessert. If possible, do not repeat a color in the menu unless it is a neutral one. Florence Pritchett Smith.
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Smith polled her society friends requesting their favorite menus, recipes, and entertaining advice. Astonishingly nearly all responded, even such media-adverse personalities as Betsey Whitney. Guest, Marella Agnelli, and the former and present Mrs. Leland Haywards Slim and Pam. One of the respondents—Consuelo Vanderbilt Balsan—was vaguely related to the author.
Smith and had two children by him. Advice from Pritchett Smith's glamorous friends takes up a good portion of the book. Here are some of the best:. It is suburban. Have pretty women, attractive men, guests who are en passant , the flavor of another language.
This is the jet age, so have something new and changing. It makes it more festive because they are as decorative as a bouquet of flowers. It will help to smooth over difficulties and ignore rudeness, at least for the time being.
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But Malghella did not find the destined saviour of Italy in Murat ; his one lasting work was to establish Carbonarism on so strong a basis that, when the Bourbons returned, there were thousands, if not hundreds of thousands, of Carbonari in all parts of the realm. The discovery was not a pleasant one to 24 The Liberation of Italy the restored rulers, and the Prince of Canosa, the new Minister of Police, thought tc counteract the evil done by his predecessor by setting up an abominable secret society called the Calderai del Contrapeso Braziers of the Counterpoise , principally recruited from the refuse of the people, lazzaroni, bandits and let-out convicts, who were provided by Government with 20, muskets, and were sworn to exterminate all enemies of the Church of Rome, whether Jansenists, Freemasons or Carbonari.
This association committed some horrible excesses, but otherwise it had no results. The Carbonari closed in their ranks, and learnt to observe more strictly their rules of secrecy. From the kingdom of Naples, Carbonarism spread to the Roman states, and found a congenial soil in Romagna, which became the focus whence it spread over the rest of Italy.
It was natural that it should take the colour, more or less, of the places where it grew.
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In Romagna, where political assassination is in the blood of the people, a dagger was substituted for the symbolical woodman's axe in the initiatory rites. It was probably only in Romagna that the conventional threat against informers was often carried out. The Romagnols in- vested Carbonarism with the wild intensity of their own temperament, resolute even to crime, but capable of supreme impersonal enthusiasm.
The ferment of ex- pectancy that prevailed in Romagna is reflected in the Letters and Journals of Lord Byron, whom young Count Pietro Gamba made a Carbonaro, and who looked forward to seeing the Italians send the barbarians of all nations back to their own dens, as to the most interesting spectacle and moment in existence. It is no great matter, supposing that Italy could be liberated, who or what is sacrificed.
It is a grand object — the very poetry of politics. Why, there has been nothing like it since the days of Augustus. The concession of the hard-won Spanish Con- stitution in the month of March encouraged the Neapoli- tans to believe that they might get a like boon from their own King if they directed all the forces at their command to this single end.
To avoid being com- promised, they sought rather to dissociate themselves from the patriots of other parts of Italy than to co- operate with them in an united effort. Not only among the people, but in the army the Carbonari had thousands of followers on whom they could rely, and several whole regiments were only waiting their orders to rise in open revolt. Such extreme measures were not necessary. The standard of rebellion was raised at Monteforte by two officers named Morelli and Silvati, who had brought over a troop of cavalry from Nola, and by the priest Menechini.
In all Neapolitan in- surrections there was sure to be a priest ; the Neapolitan Church, much though there is to be laid to its account, 26 The Liberation of Italy must be admitted to have frequently shown sympathy with the popular side. Menechini enjoyed an immense, if brief, popularity which he used to allay the anger of the mob and to procure the safety of obnoxious persons. The King sent two generals and a body of troops against the Chartists, but when the Carbonari symbols were recognised on the insurgent flags, the troops showed such clear signs of wishing to go over to the enemy that they were quietly taken back to Naples.
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The cry of ' God, the King, and the Constitution,' was taken up through the land; General Pepe, who had long been a Carbonaro in secret, was enthusiastically hailed as commander of the Chartist forces, which practically comprised the whole army. The King was powerless ; besides which, when pushed up into any corner people who do not mind breaking their word have a facility for hard swearing. On the 13th of July, Ferdinand standing at the altar of the royal chapel, with his hand on the Bible, swore to defend and maintain the Constitution which he had just granted.
If he failed to do so, he called upon his subjects to disobey him, and God to call him to account. These words he read from a written form ; as if they were not enough, he added, with his eyes on the cross, and his face turned towards heaven : ' Omnipotent God, who with Thine infinite power canst read the soul of man and the future, do Thou, if I speak falsely, or intend to break my oath, at this mo- ment direct the thunder of Thy vengeance on my head.
In the first place, although a revolution may be made by a sect, a government cannot be carried on by one. The Work of the Carbonari 27 The Carbonari who had won the day were bh'nd to this self-evident truth ; and, to make matters worse, there was a split in their party, some of them being disposed to throw off the Bourbon yoke altogether ; a natural desire, but as it was only felt by a minority, it added to the general confusion. Then came, as it was sure to come, the cry for separation from Sicily.
The Sicilians wanted back the violated constitution obtained for them by the English in , and would have nothing to do with that offered them from Naples. In every one of the struggles between Sicily and Naples, it is impossible to refuse sympathy to the islanders, who, in the pride of their splendid independent history, deemed themselves the victims of an inferior race ; but it is equally impos- sible to ignore that, politically, they were in the wrong.
In union, and in union alone, lay the only chance of resisting the international plot to keep the South Italian populations in perpetual bondage, The Sicilian revolt was put down at first mildly, and finally, as mildness had no effect, with the usual violence by the Neapolitan Constitutional Government, which could not avoid losing credit and popularity in the operation.
Meanwhile, the three persons who traded under the name of Europe met at Troppau, and came readily to the conclusion that 'the sovereigns of the Holy Alliance exercised an incontest- able right in taking common measures of security against states which the overthrow of authority by revolt placed in a hostile attitude towards every legitimate govern- ment' The assumption was too broadly stated, even for Lord Castlereagh's acceptance ; but he was con- tented to make a gentle protest, which he further nul- lified by allowing that, in the present case, intervention was very likely justified.
France expressed no dis- approval. The Emperor of Russia was very anxious to take part in the business, and would have sent off an army instantly had not his royal brother of Prussia hesitated to consent to the inconvenience of a Cossack march through his territory. The work was left, therefore, to the Emperor of Austria. Before entering upon it, it occurred to these three to invite the King of Naples to meet them at Laybach.
They knew his character. Ferdinand assured his Parliament that he was going to Laybach solely to induce the Holy Alliance to think better of its opposition, and to agree, at least, to all the principal features of the new state of things.
Most foolishly the Parliament, which, according to the Con- stitution, might have vetoed his leaving the country, let him go. Before starting he wrote an open letter to his dear son, the Duke of Calabria, who was appointed Regent, in which he said : ' I shall defend the events of the past July before the Congress. I firmly desire the Spanish Constitution for my kingdom ; and although I rely on the justice of the assembled sovereigns, and on their old friendship, still it is well to tell you that, in what- ever circumstance it may please God to place me, my course will be what I have manifested on this sheet, strong and unchangeable either by force or by the flattery of others.
News came in due time of the sequel. On the 9th of February i82i,the Regent received a letter from the King, in which he gave the one piece of advice that the people should submit to their fate quietly. He was coming back with 50, Austrians, and a Russian army was ready to start if wanted.
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Nevertheless, to prevent a sudden outbreak before the foreign troops arrived, the Regent carried on a game of duplicity to the last, and pretended to second, whilst he really baulked, the pre- The Work of the Carbonari 29 parations for resistance decreed by Parliament.
Baron Poerio, the father of two patriot martyrs of the future, sustained the national dignity by urging Parliament to yield only to force, and to defy the barbarous horde which was bearing down on the country. The closing scene is soon told.
On the 7th of March, in the moun- tains near Rieti, General Guglielmo Pepe, with regular troops and a handful of militia, encountered an overwhelmingly superior force of Austrians. The Neapolitans stood out well for six hours, but on the Austrian reserves coming up, they were completely routed, and obliged to fly in all directions.
In Sicily, a gallant attempt at insurrection was begun, but there was not the spirit to go on with it, and General Rossaroll, its initiator, had to fly to Spain.